There are several types of badges in the system, most of which you can receive multiple times. Each time you get one you will get a 15 point reputation bonus.
For a complete list of the badges you can earn, have a look here. You can see how many times a particular badge has been awarded and you will see a checkmark in front of the ones that you received.
Please note that you do not get a reputation bonus if you receive the Supporter badge.
How can I help getting bugs fixed?
If a bug contains no steps to reproduce, we need your help. Give us clear steps on how to reproduce it in the “steps to reproduce” section. If someone else already has, vote it up if you agree. If your steps to reproduce a bug are accepted you will gain reputation and a badge.